Robb, K.L. Box 53400, Burlington, VT, 05405. Susceptibility of Chrysanthemum cultivars to thrips (, de Jager, C. M., R. P. T. Butot, P. G. L. Klinkhamer, T. J. de Jong, K. Wolff, and E. van der Meijden. Predacious bugs. Pesticide resistance. In African violets, thrips feeding ruptures pollen sacs, spreading loose pollen over flowers. Amblyseius cucumeris cannot survive below 32°F (0°C), but can be stored for up to 10 weeks at 48°F (9°C) with only 37% mortality. Additional larvae are also killed by "host feeding" (ovipositor insertion without egg laying, followed by wasp feeding on host fluids from wounds, followed by host death). CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. and mirids (plant bugs, including the species Dicyphus tamaninii Wagner and Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Riudavets and Castañé 1998). Virus remains detectable in dead thrips on sticky cards for at least two weeks. Resistance was also stable and one resistant strain remained resistant in a pesticide-free environment for 4 years (approximately 100 generations). Western flower thrips have a very large host range that includes many vegetables. Development of Species-Specific Primers for Agronomical Thrips and Multiplex Assay for Quarantine Identification of Western Flower Thrips W. B. Yeh, W. B. Yeh 2. London, United Kingdom. High-volume spray applications that produce a fine mist with good leaf wetting (but not to run-off) give better levels of control than low volume electrostatic sprays (Brownbridge et al. Biological control of western flower thrips on cucumber using the predatory mites, van Houten, Y. M. and P. van Stratum. Tospoviruses: diagnosis, molecular biology, phylogeny, and vector relationships. 1995, 1997). NATO ASI Series., Series-A: Life Sciences, Vol. In surveys in Spain, four bugs, O. laevigatus, O. majusculus, D. tamaninii, and M. caliginosus, accounted for 95% of the WFT predators encountered. Biological control of the western flower thrips. They cause damage with their feeding and they are very effective vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus. This is likely related to the closer association of TSWV with vegetables and INSV with ornamentals (Daughtrey et al. Culturing thrips and parasitoids, pp. 1996. Specifically, van den Meriacker (1994) found that for O. insidiosus the critical photoperiod was between 11 and 12 hours, and for O. majusculus it was between 14 and 16 hours. 1995b, Loomans and van Lenteren 1996). Screening will only be helpful if the source of an infestation is from thrips migrating in from the outside and not from infected plant material within the greenhouse. Onion thrips: variable, dark to light brown/grey, but fairly uniform over abdomen. While aspects of the biology of this species of nematode are known (Lysaght 1937, Nickle and Wood 1964, Wilson and Cooly 1972, Siddiqui 1985, Greene and Parrella 1995), greenhouse studies on population interactions with WFT are lacking. Riverside, CA 92521, 900 University Ave. Adults. For example, on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa), unacceptable levels of phytotoxicity to flowers (over 4%) were reached when chlorpyrifos was used at 10-day intervals or when abamectin or cyfluthrin were used at 5-day intervals (Nasruddin and Smitley 1991). van Heest and J.J. Fransen, 1995b. Lysaght, A. M. 1937. 1995. 1997. Brødsgaard, H. F. 1994a. Fungi are sensitive to high temperatures and even warm conditions can be damaging if prolonged. A non-diapausing strain of the subtropical species A. limonicus was identified in laboratory tests as having the highest predation and oviposition rates of five candidate species (van Houten et al. 1995b. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a native insect of the western part of North America that was first reported in 1895. Bulletin SROP 10 (2): 160-164. Petunia as an indicator plant for use by growers to monitor for thrips carrying the tomato spotted wilt virus in greenhouses. The distribution of this mite on plants is similar to that of WFT and the mite lays its eggs on the undersides of leaves near the top of the plant. Needs pollen as alternate food, Pollen producing crops, e.g., sweet pepper, Slow development and a lack of pest control, WFT eggs not affected; WFT adults very susceptible; WFT larvae intermediate susceptibility, Requires good coverage and high humidity to be effective, Used mainly against whiteflies and to supplement other thrips control programs, Propupae and pupae are susceptible to infection, Only effective against thrips in the soil. should be consulted when installing insect screens in mechanically vented greenhouses (Robb and Parrella 1995). Natural enemies of western flower thrips indigenous to California ornamentals. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis P. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major agricultural and horticulture pest worldwide (Kirk, 2002; Kirk and Terry, 2003). Lewis. 1995. Instead, thrips counts on plants can be based on a presence-absence assessment, in which the sampler takes note of the proportion of samples with thrips, rather than actually counting numbers of thrips in each sample (Schmidt and Frey 1995). NATO ASI Series. TSWV has a very wide host range, and the only thrips that transmits the virus in a persistent way. J Econ Entomol. Determination of thrips species requires good optics, a determination key, and the ability to recognize very small features on the body of the thrips. Microbial Insecticides: Novelty or Necessity? Critical attributes are those that determine the ability of the species to survive under greenhouse conditions, to increase to high densities, and to consume the greatest number of thrips. Robb., and J. P. Newman. Environmental Entomology, 21: 322-330. Tapping flowers of incoming plants over a white piece of paper is a fast method to screen incoming shipments. This process involves placing castor bean plants bearing thriving colonies of A. degenerans into the greenhouse at the beginning of the crop. NATO ASI Series., Series-A: Life Sciences, Vol. 1996. WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), are serious pests of many greenhouse and field crops grown throughout the world (Tommasini and Maini 1995). Most WFT pupate in the soil and fungi can be applied to soil to kill this stage. Gill, S. 1994. Baker, J. R., J. Chemical control is the most frequently used method to suppress WFT in greenhouses (Oetting 1988, Helyer and Brobyn 1992). Time-efficient use of yellow sticky traps in monitoring insect populations. 1987. This can be the case in chemical control programs directed against WFT. CAB International, United Kingdom. Times need for development of WFT life stages have been measured on several crop species, including cucumber (Gaum et al. Carnations, chrysanthemums, gerberas, geraniums, marigolds, pansies, and roses are the major host plants. However, trials conducted in Texas with Botanigard® and Naturalis®-O on western flower thrips infesting potted chrysanthemums and African violets failed to detect efficacy for either product (Thompson et al. 33-40. Management of silverleaf whitefly and western flower thrips with. Plenum Press, New York. 1992. 2,000 square feet) in large houses. In H.F. Evans [ed.]. (However, on two ornamental crops, dahlias and chrysanthemums, TSWV is the more important virus). 1997 British Crop Protection Council Symposium (No. 1997). (ed.) Nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae seem poorly suited for biological control of WFT because they are ineffective on foliage and can only be used against thrips in soil. 115-118. Greene, I. D. and M. P. Parrella. All four of these species were able to complete their development on a diet of WFT larvae. Citrus Drive Riverside, CA 92521, tel: (951) 827-4714 email: email@example.com, COLLEGE OF NATURAL & AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Vibrational Mating Calls of the Blue-Green Sharpshooter, 4 Monitoring and Controlling Western Flower Thrips, 5.1 Efficacy Trials with Pests and Parasites, Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America, College of Natural & Agricultural Sciences, Developmental Time (days) on Chrysanthenum, Degree Days (egg to adult) on Chrysanthenum, Expensive to rear at high densities. Robb, K. L., J. Newman, J. K. Virzi and M. P. Parrella. Financial support for this publication was provide by the Massachusetts IPM Program and a grant from the New England Greenhouse Conference. While potentially a useful factor in IPM programs to manage WFT, use of resistant cultivars has not resolved the problem, and variation between cultivars in their other qualities are important influences on production decisions. Further information on the natural enemies of F. occidentalis may be found in Sabelis and van Rijn (1997). However, the recently introduced western flower thrips (WFT) (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a significant threat to peanuts.This is because it can transfer tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and capsicum chlorosis virus (CCV). Blumel, S. 1996. Genetic resistance to damage from WFT feeding has been sought in tomatoes (Kumar et al. Morewood, W. D. and L. A. Gilkeson. 1992. 1993. Daughtrey et al. 1997). To delay development of resistance, a standard recommendation is to use long-term rotations. van der Schaaf, D.A., W.A. Thompson, S., P. C. Krauter, and K. M. Heinz. Spray solutions should be used immediately because if they are held for several hours under warm conditions, spore viability will decline and the level of control will be reduced. Tank mixes of fungal biopesticides and other pesticides should only be prepared according to the manufacturer’s guidelines because some materials are harmful to fungi. 1991. New records of thrips in Georgia. Contributing authors include entomologists, plant pathologists, extension agents, and biological control specialists. Commercial prospects of microbial pesticides in agriculture, pp. The number of prey eaten by O. insidiosus when offered various numbers of WFT has also be quantified (Coll and Ridgeway 1995). Commercial test kits for grower use are available. Vectoring of plant diseases. Efficacy of natural enemies of the western flower thrips. 1996. 1995). 1996. Then, rotate to a third class of insecticides, and finally, return to the original material and repeat the whole process. (ed.). Detection and identification of tospoviruses in greenhouses. 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